The Stolen Digital Generation

Abstract

In the current political climate, no greater need for security has been evident with the rise of global terrorism and politically motivated violence. Increased security measures are not only costly, but are manpower exhaustive and often intrusive.

Furthermore, data, in the most basic sense, has been secure in datacenters with the advent of strong security procedures, access control systems and a myriad of technological advances. Over the last three decades, various forms of metal detection have been used, in some degree, to screen datacenter workers for potential hardware that may have left the center.

In some cases, it has shown progress in stopping some larger items from going undetected. The challenge for the industry though, has always been smaller hard to detect items like thumb drives and mini SD drives.

Recent advances in software algorithms and hardware detection levels have allowed newer, more novel approaches to help organizations secure even more potential threats. Additionally, testing has shown that new systems capable of facial recognition with both biometric recognition and iris scanning, adds another level of critical authorization and advanced screening.

In this discussion, we will highlight the issues many organizations face with older technology and the latest advancements in both object detection, as well as combined threat analysis with biometrics and iris advancements. This paper will explore current issues with both personal security and cyber security.

Introduction

George S Clason, Businessman and ‘The Richest Man In Babylon’ stated that “In those things toward which we exerted our best endeavors, we succeeded.”

With so many magnificent by-products of innovation, entrepreneurship, genius and bravery, that statement rings true in so many ways and is demonstrated through the technology we use in our daily lives.

In this the technological age, we as humans have achieved some truly amazing feats of advancement. In the short space of the past 130 years, we have come from the horse and cart to the automobile, from phonographs to iPods, we’ve mastered flight, space travel, communication, and of course the internet. We are truly enjoying the golden age of technology.

We have discovered that with every problem, there is a solution.

And with every solution, our instinctive curiosity and intuition causes us to improve and develop these solutions to make them better. That is how we have evolved as a civilized society.

As we come up with answers, we then discover new problems to solve. The wheel may certainly have been invented, but it went through, and still goes through, various stages of improvement to make it an optimal commodity. We are a Research and Development society.

We have created ways to do things through technology, and it has become a valuable part of our day to day lives. Some would argue that it is the ultimate level to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

1. Cyber Security

The word Cyber Security was unheard of 30 odd years ago, but has now become an industry in itself as we struggle to maintain integrity and privacy. The issue of Data Theft has outweighed the fear of property theft in many cases, and this is what I’m here today to talk about.

McAfee estimates a loss to the global economy of between $400 and $575 billion dollars in cybercrime per year. These figures are based on known data only- it is likely much higher.

An IBM study found the average consolidated total cost of a data breach is $3.8 million, representing a 23% increase from 2013.
• The average cost per record breach is $154,
• for healthcare organizations $363, and
• 47% of data breaches are malicious!
• A further study found that 36% of data breaches were from employee misuse or negligence, while 25 percent were intentional attacks from an insider.

Think about that for a moment.

Let us then ask ourselves the following questions:
• How does data leave the data center, and
• what can we do to minimize these breaches?

2. Physical hacks

Many Data Centres have firewalls and other network security measures to minimize risk, and for the most part these are effective. Cyber Security experts though, claim that the five simplest ways to hack into a data center are by;

1. crawling through void spaces in the data center walls,

2. lock-picking the door,

3. “tailgating” into the building, (tailing other employees)

4. posing as contractors or service repairman, and

5. jimmying open improperly installed doors or windows.

You’re effectively leaving the front door open for thieves!

With emerging trends such as Big Data, bring-your-own-device (BYOD) mobility and global online collaboration sparking an explosion of data, the data center will only become more important to your organization and will continue to be the target of not only breaches, but advanced malware and other cyber-attacks.

Additionally, compromised targets can unwittingly become attackers themselves. At the bidding of cybercriminals who can control comprised systems remotely, the data centers are commandeered as potent weapons in attacks against fresh targets

The emphasis on Data Centre Security is paramount, and whilst hacking and cyber-attacks require their own defence mechanism, today I’m here to address the physical breaches, and how to best counter them within an organization.

3. Front line defence

For those familiar with SAS 70 compliance and audits, the ‘Data Center Physical Security Best Practices Checklist’ below contains a data center physical security best practices program that is quite comprehensive and no doubt costly, time consuming, and resource heavy.

Data Center Physical Security Best Practices Checklist

• Built and Constructed for Ensuring Physical Protection

The exterior perimeter walls, doors, and windows should be constructed of materials that provide Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) rated ballistic protection.

• Protection of the Physical Grounds

The data center should have in place physical elements that serve as battering rams and physical protection barriers that protect the facility from intruders.

• Bullet Resistant Glass

Certain areas within the data center, such as the lobby area and other entrance mechanisms, should be protected by bullet proof or bullet resistant glass.

• Maintenance of Vegetation Flowers

Plants, trees and other forms of vegetation should be appropriately maintained for purposes of not allowing these elements to conceal or hide an intruder.

• Security Systems and 24×7 Backup Power

The data center’s security systems should be functioning at all times, complete with

uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for ensuring its continuous operation.

• Cages, Cabinets and Vaults

These physical structures which house equipment must be properly installed with no loose or moving components, ultimately ensuring their overall strength and rigidity.

• Man Trap

All data centers should have a man trap that allows for secure access to the data center “floor”.

• Electronic Access Control Systems (ACS)

Access to all entry points into and within the data center should be protected by electronic access control mechanisms which allow only authorized individuals to enter the facility. Included within the framework of electronic access control should also be biometric safeguards, such as palm readers, iris recognition, and fingerprint readers.

• Provisioning Process

Any individual requesting access to the data center should be enrolled in a structured and documented provisioning process for ensuring the integrity of the person entering the facility.

• Off-boarding Process

Personnel working for the data center or clients utilizing the facility services must be

immediately removed from systems that have allowed access to the facility itself. This includes all electronic access control mechanism along with removal of all systems, databases, Web portals, or any other type of sign-in mechanism that requires authentication and authorization activities.

• Visitors

All visitors must be properly identified with a current, valid form of identification and must be given a temporary facility badge allowing access to certain areas within the data center. This process must be documented in a ticketing system also.

• Alarms

All exterior doors and sensitive areas within the facility must be hard wired with alarms.

• Cameras

The facility should have a mixture of security cameras in place throughout all critical areas, both inside and out, of the data center. This should include the following cameras: Fixed and pan, tilt, and zoom (PTZ) cameras.

• “Threat Conditions Policy”

Consistent with the rating scale of the Department of Homeland Security, the facility should have a “threat conditions policy” in place whereby employees and customers are made aware of changes in the threat.

• Badge and Equipment Checks

Periodic checks should be done on employees and customers regarding badge access and equipment ownership.

• Local Law Enforcement Agencies

Management should have documented contact information for all local law enforcement officials in the case of an emergency.

• Paper Shredding

A third-party contractor should be utilized for shredding documents on-site, then removing them from the facility, all in a documented fashion, complete with sign-off each time shredding is done.

• Data Center Security Staff

As you can see, this is a comprehensive list of measures that no doubt add to the effectiveness of security, but ultimately ‘Data security starts with physical security.’

4. Layers of Security

The Anixta White Paper suggests a Four Layer approach to Data Center security.

First Layer: Perimeter Security

Second Layer: Facility Controls

Third Layer: Computer Room Controls

Fourth Layer: Cabinet Controls

Not all organisations have the resources to be able to take this approach, and as you can see from the following example, some companies have spent a fortune securing their data.

Example: A top-secret financial data center on the East Coast, an 8-acre facility is a model of a serious approach to physical security with perimeter safeguards such as hydraulic bollards to stop speeding cars and a drainage pond that functions as a moat.

That is the millennial version of a castle with a protected outer layer.

It is the Inner Layers though, that are the most crucial in securing Data.

This is where Entry Control Points (ECPs) can be secured with technological security rather than Human Resources in a cost effective, discreet Threat Detection System (Ronin) that will detect even the smallest of devices such as USBs from entering or leaving a building.

Access control systems act as the primary keys to the castle and should use methods that cannot be shared, such as biometric access. Coupling a key card with biometrics requires the user to match the access card and the biometric such as fingerprint or retinal recognition.

Sharing access is strictly forbidden.

Physical security is broken into two pieces: the physical elements such as cameras, access control systems and locks; and the operational processes such as visitor and contractor policies and general awareness training. If both elements are not addressed, neither will be 100 percent effective.

The most important aspect though, is to be diligent against the biggest threat: People!

Unless you are pro-active in your approach, you will always be a target for theft.

Don’t make the assumption that it will never happen to you.

As stated in the opening sentence “We have discovered that with every problem there is a solution.” As far as reducing the ‘front door’ risk, the focus must be on implementing technologies to assist human resources in detecting security breaches that either introduce, or remove devices such as USBs etc. that intend on stealing data. A small, hidden device may or may not show up on a metal detector, and can definitely be strategically hidden to avoid such measures (internally).

In developing security systems that have;
• pinpoint accuracy of detection,
• simultaneous detection of location, size, & orientation,
• requires minimal manpower to operate and, more importantly,
• is discreet, unobtrusive, and can be hidden

5. Real Time Threat Detection Systems – The Keys To The Castle!

To this point, we have covered the protection and security of data and suggested solutions in maintaining data integrity. But a growing and ever present threat to humanity is the rise of terrorism, violence, and attacks on people and property. Airports, venues, military installations, schools, and government installations to name a few, have all increased security measures in an attempt to minimise harm but opportunistic criminals will always find ways to exploit defences and conduct attacks. Physical security, that is to say security personnel, are a deterrent but can still be overcome by force at close range. Weapons are also easy to conceal, and can avoid detection via personal searches or visual inspection. Knives, guns, pistols etc. are primarily used at close range and require the user to be in close quart range. Explosives on the other hand, can be detonated at distance, keeping the perpetrator out of range.

It is therefore necessary to be able to screen people in large volumes from a distance, and fortunately the technology for this is now available with products that are able to do the following:
• Reduce human error-
• No Dedicated Monitoring
• Inconspicuous
• Simple Training
• Large Traffic Throughput
• One System/Multiple Gates
• Updates Via Cloud

Conclusion

This paper has discussed key issues surrounding both cyber and personal security. As threats continue to increase, so must the capacity to outwit and defeat those who would seek to do harm.

It has highlighted deficiencies in the above-mentioned areas of security and presented possible scenarios for applicable solutions for each.

It is in no way exhaustive, but indicates the main security threats to organisations and people today.

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Building Avionics Solutions to Meet Emerging Industry Trends

The access in business and leisure biking beyond the apple has led to a massive advance in air traffic, which in about-face is absolutely influencing the bazaar for bartering avionics systems. On-time arrivals and able operations accept become the charge of the hour, forth with the accretion apprehension of air travellers for best in-flight services.

To accommodated the needs of customers, and in adjustment to accede with assurance and babyminding standards, there is an approaching charge for the aerodynamics industry to embrace state-of-the art avionics systems, causing the avionics industry to abound at a cogent clip globally. Moreover, massive investments in aggressive and UAV programs for the purpose of science and analysis are aswell accidental to the charge for able hardware, software, system, and automated engineering systems in the avionics sector.

Understanding Contempo Aerospace Trends

The all-embracing bazaar for avionics systems is chiefly apprenticed by accretion charge for absolute time abstracts to advance aircraft’s operational efficiency. Several advancing avionics initiatives in American and European nations are accepted to added accession the bazaar in the advancing years and action new opportunities for avionics suppliers. With accumulative investments in research, development and acceptance in avionics assurance analytical modules, added articles are getting launched by the manufacturers to advance aircraft’ performance, abate abuse and abbreviate risks associated with animal absurdity during flights. Let’s attending at some of the contempo trends in the aerospace industry:

Predictable Aliment Cycles: Analytics, enabled by sensors that aircraft now carry, are enabling airline companies to bigger plan if an aircraft needs adjustment or will be out of service, and what blazon of aliment issues are acceptable to arise. Such predictions will advice abstain abeyant locations shortages and hasty downtime.

Incremental Approach to Innovation: With immense developments in the aerospace industry, it is cryptic whether airline companies will acquire the advancing acknowledgment on their investments. To affected this challenge, accession accept to be approached in a added acclimatized and incremental way, anxiously free which affection and accomplishment improvements charge to be pursued.

New Assurance Models: Although a lot of chump requirements are essential, some can be adapted or alone after impacting the achievement of the aircraft. Passing forth requirements to suppliers, after assessing the inherent charge for these requirements, leads to transactional inefficiencies and added costs. Meeting chump requirements necessitates the charge for adopting new assurance models.

Rapid Advance in the Accumulation Chain: The access in aircraft and aircraft locations assembly by above aircraft makers will abode immense burden on every stakeholder in the accumulation chain, acute them to embrace able means to accord with top demand. The botheration will be decidedly analytical for OEMs that accept to accordingly accomplish top volumes for new artefact curve and abide confined their installed base.

Capability and Accident Assessments: In adjustment to accommodated the growing demands of the industry, aircraft OEMs and suppliers will charge to conduct accumulation alternation adequacy and accident assessments to analyze and abode challenges. Companies will charge to accomplish enhancements to absolute operating models in adjustment to abate accumulation alternation complexity, and enhance accoutrement and systems for bigger visibility.

Building Solutions to Accommodated Industry Trends

So how do aircraft companies ensure they accommodated these trends and amuse the needs of customers? By accumulation avant-garde avionics solutions of course! Several avionics band-aid providers are blooming about the apple who action avant-garde electronics and engineering systems for aircraft that advice accumulate the operational functions:

• Aerospace engineering casework for DO-254, DO-178B, DO-178C, DO-160 and ARP-4754 adjustable avionics systems for commercial, business, aggressive and UAV programs.

• Solutions about software architectonics and development adjustable with EUROCADE ED-12C/RTCA, DO-178B, DO-178C and transitioning from DO-178/A/B to DO-178/C guidelines.

• Model based architecture adjustable with EUROCADE ED-12C/RTCA, DO-178B and DO-178C guidelines

• VLSI Architecture and analysis for FPGA, ASIC and SoC apparatus adjustable with DO-254 guidelines

• Object-oriented technology based development and analysis complaint with EUROCAE ED-217/RTCA DO-332

• Accoutrement accomplishment adjustable with EUROCADE ED-215/RTCA DO330

• Support for DAL-A systems in acquiescence with FAA and EASA, acclamation the business needs of all-around aerospace companies beyond hardware, software and arrangement engineering.

In addition, system-level design, analysis and validation, superior assessment, obsolescence management, and accessory and reengineering of deployed avionics systems and alternate audits for acceptance is enabling aircraft companies to abode the growing business needs beyond flight ascendancy systems, cockpit affectation systems, advice and aeronautics systems, in-flight ball systems, berth administration systems and surveillance systems, a part of others.

Move with the Times

Over the contempo years, there has been abundant advance in the bartering aerospace and aegis market. A amount of factors such as access in aircraft orders, advance in arising economies, and access in acceptance of avionics systems in next-generation aircraft are active the advance of the bartering avionics market. Such an astronomic advance is acute avionics companies to action avant-garde and cost-friendly solutions in adjustment to move with the times in this anytime growing market.

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The Process of Media Industry Conglomeration

Introduction

The activity of media agglomeration has complex the regrouping of bunch companies, which as a result, has created a ability of ample proportions. This agency that these companies accept the ascendancy of the bounded and the all-embracing market. Their ascendancy over the bazaar has been accelerated with the ablution of satellites and added development in the media, such as in the acreage of agenda press, agenda music and agenda videos.

One of the capital issues is accompanying to the furnishings of the Western media; decidedly the American media, on added cultures, as it continuously boss the all-embracing market. This affair raises doubts about assortment of choice, superior and competition.

With the development and ambit of digital technology, it can be argued that the bounded ability of abounding countries, in accurate the arrested ones, has become the capital victim as a aftereffect of this affectionate of media domination, in a apple of faster all-around communications. The bounded programmers and blur assembly in the arrested countries accept suffered abominably as the all-embracing companies advertise their media articles so cheaply that the bounded producers cannot attempt with them.

From the above, we can see that we accept arrested countries about absolutely abased on bargain Western programmes to ample the time on their television screens. The irony is that money was fabricated accessible to the television companies in these arrested countries so that they could buy the American media articles instead of the advice bare to aftermath their own programmes.

The All-around Market

With the ablution of the digital advice systems, the all-around bazaar affected altered dimensions. The apple al of a sudden became abundant abate than acclimated to be, abate in the faculty of the ambit and admission of media accumulation communication, appropriately the byword ‘global village’ became the announcement of the day acclimated by the media consistently if they capital to accredit to the apple as a whole.

As a result, the abandoned nation bazaar became the bazaar for any nation who bedevilled the latest technology in bartering digital communication. This bearings brought activity aback to all old Western media products, abnormally the American products.

Selling in this bearings added at an absurd rate, i.e. affairs all old programmes and movies to abounding African and Asian countries which no one in the West capital to watch.

In this new era of communication, there is a huge market, a bazaar to ample the time on every television approach about the apple – the aurora of the agglomeration market. The arrested apple has annihilation to attempt with this. To aftermath films or their own programmes is too big-ticket in allegory with what is accessible on the all-embracing market. Therefore, it is not hasty to see on TV in a baby African country an American soap opera fabricated added than 20 years ago.

The big all-embracing companies are growing bigger every day as the amount of their admirers access all over the world. Media corporations from the West are authoritative the accomplished all-embracing market, which is one of the capital issues accompanying to media conglomeration.

One absolute altercation for the activity of agglomeration is that the chargeless markets will accompany antagonism which appropriately makes the assortment of the media articles a absoluteness for all the barter about the globe. This is what the owners of the big association believe, such as Mr. Murdoch.

The bounded humans would adopt to see on their TV approach the absorption of their own circadian life, rather than what is/was accident in absent places (e.g. a top admeasurement of Zimbabwe humans watched ‘Root’). It appears that the crisis in a bearings like this one is that the humans in that African country, and abnormally the new generation, see Western media assembly as a archetypal which should be affected in their own circadian life, As a aftereffect of this, the bounded culture, which should be protected, is gradually destroyed.

Power and Control

The ability (and control) acclimatized by agglomeration is an important issue, as it affects the befalling of speech. Fair antagonism amid businesses and abandon of accent in a autonomous association is an important agency for the advance aural any culture. Unfortunately, this is not the case with the Western media products, i.e. the big corporations wish added countries to depend on their products.

Access to media, therefore, is bound to few companies and appropriately the best is limited. For example, the bounded ambassador in arrested country will be consistently disturbing to barrage his/her new product, and even if he/she is acknowledged in ablution it, the banking gain, in some cases, will hardly awning the cost. Therefore, there is an altercation for assortment and best of media products, i.e. it is important not to accept in any country assimilation of any media products, such as with the present bearings apropos the saturated bazaar of American media production.

When it comes to the music industry, the bazaar and the ability of authoritative it afresh is the capital issue. The $30 billion industry generates its assets from massive all-embracing market. For example, one anthology ‘Thriller’ by Michael Jackson awash added than 40 actor copies, which appropriately produced a accumulation for CBS of added than $60 million. The Japanese ‘Sony’ saw that there was an befalling for their accouterments industry in this market, so if the CBS aggregation absitively to advertise their almanac division, they (the Japanese) bought it for $2 billion. The ‘sale’ meant a new aperture aperture for added sales to Sony, i.e. with their new technology at that time, e.g. CD, software, etc, they can advertise the music all over afresh on a new format. From the aloft takeover, the big corporations in the music industry affected Sony’s activity by affairs bazaar shares of added abate music companies. The endure music business ‘Virgin’ awash to EMI Thorn for $500 million. There are, consequently, few big corporations which ascendancy the music industry worldwide, such as Thorn-EMI, Sony, Philips/Polygram, Matsushita/MCA, Time Warner and Bertelsmann/BMG.

The aloft companies accept penetrated the common bazaar and accept an all-embracing cartel of this market, which consequently, as has been mentioned in affiliation with the blur and TV industry, accompany with it a limitation of customer choice.

The Book Industry (Publications)

Concerning the book industry, i.e. publications such as newspapers, magazines and books, the statistics appearance that amid 1985 and 1995 the amount of media articles and administration systems has added noticeably. However, this does not beggarly that these new articles accept auspiciously accustomed themselves in the market. Abounding of the new launches at that time, such as News on Sunday, The Sunday Correspondent and The Post, could not survive the antagonism and appropriately bankrupt down. Abounding critics accept that the abutting down of a amount of newspapers was the aftereffect of Mr. Murdoch’s amount war. For example, annual for News Association during 1994 adumbrated a accident of added than £45 actor in the United Kingdom alone. However, the profits at BSKyB rose to over £186 million. News association aswell suffered a bead in accumulation alfresco UK but at the aforementioned time had a acceleration in television and films profits. Mr. Murddoch approved to access the auction of his newspapers – that agency demography readers abroad from newspapers such as the Circadian Telegraph and The Independent. He bargain the amount of The Times bi-weekly as able-bodied as introducing upmarket bingo, bringing added amazing belief in the Sunday Times (the apocryphal Hitler Diaries), all these had bound success.
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